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(E) Hemitragus bonali, left metatarsal in dorsal view (Val-C9-CJ21-647). verticornis, distal extremity of left humerus (Val-C8-B2-1859), in cranial view, showing anthropic activities. (A) Flake with cortical surface and no butt, of limestone. (F) Pebble of quartzite, with a removal negative (percussion instrument). (H) Refitting flake on hammerstone of sandy limestone.(B) Flake with cortical surface and no butt, of quartzite. One stratigraphic horizon, PLI-H1 of complex I below the archaeological complex III, and three horizons VM3, PLIV-M and PLIV-S of complex IV above the archaeological complex III (Fig.The earliest evidence of hominin tool manufacture is dated from Kenya and in Ethiopia (Africa) via precise . At ~1 Ma, Mode 1 (core-and-flake) industries continued, both in the south and north of Europe (i.e.
Some cut-marks and broken bones with impact points indicate that hominins came to this cave to scavenge large and middle-sized cervid and bison carcasses, and occasionally rhinoceros, brought to the site by carnivores, the 97 artifacts indicate an obvious scarce and sporadic hominin presence into the cave with façonnage activities and direct and bipolar evidence of debitage on limestone, flint and quartzite.
U-Pb isotope ratios of flowstone samples are presented in Supplementary Table 3 and plotted in isochron diagrams (Supplementary Fig. Sample PLIV-S (not shown) returned scattered data suggesting either multiple sources of common Pb or open system behavior and could not be dated.
Using measured (2σ, Supplementary Table 2) to correct for initial disequilibrium in the U-series decay chain, the two disequilibrium-corrected U-Pb ages (2σ, Supplementary Table 3) of PLI-H1 at the top of complex I, the Lower flowstone, are: 1.19 ± 0.07 and 1.22 ± 0.09 Ma [Mean Square of the Weighted Deviations (MSWD) = 10.7]. The Vallonnet Cave sequence displays four paleomagnetic zones (Fig. The Lower and Upper flowstones (complexes I and IV) show reverse magnetic polarities.
(A) Pachycrocuta brevirostris, left mandible with dp2, dp3, P4, M1 in lateral view (Val-C4-CE8–149).
(B) Bison schoetensacki, right metacarpal in dorsal view (Val-A7-B1–3748).The U-Pb data, coupled with paleomagnetic constraints, provide an age range from 1.2 to 1.1 Ma.